«Министерство образования и науки РФ Томский политехнический университет Институт природных ресурсов Институт физики высоких технологий Физико-технический институт МАТЕРИАЛЫ XIII Всероссийской ...»
An indicator of the macrostructure nonuniformity degree is proposed as a characteristic (Cnon): the average pore size is 0,5 mm in the small pore structure, 1 – 3 mm in the average-pore structure, and 3 mm in the largepore structure. It was established that FGCM samples with high uniform structure are characterized by a degree of nonuniformity Cnon 10 %, and in medium and nonuniform structure it is Cnon is 11 – 20 and 21 %, respectively. It was determined for studied compositions that samples with a large-pore structure have a high degree of nonuniformity, while samples with 1 – 2 mm pores have the lowest degree of nonuniformity, and more uniform structures are observed.
Thus, investigating the foaming process and possibility of obtaining materials with a uniform fine-pore structure, the coefficient of effective foaming (KV) and the oxidation coefficient (Ko) were used as comparative indicators of foaming process charges of different compositions. KV shows the degree of the sample volume increase during heat treatment. The foaming mixes were divided into three groups on the basis of experimental results: high-foaming (KV 8), medium-foaming (KV = 4-7), and lowfoaming (KV 4).
The oxidation coefficient characterizes the quantitative ratio of oxidizers and reducers in the foaming mixture and the initial glass mix, taking account their content and chemical oxygen requirement factor.
The chemical oxygen requirement (COR) of the material was determined using the standard method; i.e. by means of reducers oxidation in the mix with potassium bichromate excess followed by back-titration of its residue with a 0.1 N solution of Mohr’s salt .
272 Section VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English Fig. 1. Dependence of the foaming coefficient on COR of the initial mix (a) and the oxidizing coefficient of the foaming mixture (b ): 1) ShM-1 mix; 2) mix for obtaining SL glass; 3) mix for obtaining KT glass; I) oxidizing region; II) transition region; III) reducing region It was found out that the COR of the initial mix increases while the foaming coefficient decreases (Fig. 1a) Results of experimentally obtained dependence of KV on the oxidation coefficient, varying from 15 to 150, show that foaming mix fall into three groups: oxidizing (Ko 25), transitional (oxidation-reduction) (25 K0 100), and reducing — (Ko 100) (Fig. 1b). It has been determined that foaming mixtures belonging to the transitional group are characXIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 273 terized by a uniform fine-pore structure, while for oxidizing and reducing groups a high degree of structural nonuniformity is observed.
Analysis of obtained data permits to draw the following conclusion:
foaming mixtures with an oxidation coefficient in the range 25 – 100, belong to the transitional oxidation- reduction group, i.e., they are optimal for foaming; the macrostructure of foam-glass-crystalline samples obtained due to granular glass based on silica raw materials is characterized by a high degree of uniformity (Cnon 10 %), optimal pore and inter pore barrier sizes (not greater than 1.4 mm and 60 m), that makes it possible to obtain materials with density of 190 – 300 kgm3.
Prospects of using felsite in acid-resistant ceramic A.B. Adykaeva Supervisor –– Inna B. Revva, Ph.D Linguist — Senior teacher, V.
Relatively clean ceramic refractories and refractory clay, which form dense fragments during the firing are traditionally used for obtaining acidresistant materials. Reduction of sintering temperature for ceramics is one of the most important technological and economic problems.
Natural material - felsite, which is a fine-grained bulk of acidic volcanic rocks, is used as an additive which reduces sintering temperature.
In this paper we used felsite from the Pokrovsky deposit located at 100 kilometer distance from Ekaterinburg. The mineralogical composition of the Pokrovsky felsite was determined by the X-ray method. It was revealed that felsite is represented by the following minerals: quartz, microcline - (Kfeldspar) and muscovite. Lepidocrocite which gives a light pink color of rocks after the firing is presented as iron impurities.
The chemical composition of felsites is presented in Table 1.
274 Section VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English
Figure 1. Effect of felsite additives on technological properties of Berlin clay.
Compressive strength of dried samples is reduced 3 or more times due to low values due to low values of compressive strength of the felsites.
Structure and Strength of Foam Glass Crystalline Materials Produced from a Glass Granulate E. K. Berdaliyev Scientific supervisor: O.V. Kaz’mina, professor Linguist: V.N. Demchenko National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.org Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences 46 Vershinina ave., Tomsk, 634021, Russia Abstract—the microstructure of foam glass crystalline materials has been investigated using the energy dispersive X ray analysis, Auger electron and infrared spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron micros copy, and X ray diffraction analysis. The strength of the materials is determined and proves to be higher than that for the foam glass prepared from a glass cullet. This is a consequence of the structural effect associated with the formation of nanostructure units in the glassy matrix.
Keywords: foam glass, foam glass crystalline material Nano clusters, strength, low temperature synthesis of the glass phase, glassy matrix.
276 Section VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English The examination of the electron microscopy images of samples of the foam glass crystalline material has revealed the existence of a heterogeneous structure in the material due to the presence of an interpore partition formed by structural units with sizes ranging from 50 to 100 nm in the bulk of the glassy matrix (Fig. 1). The revealed structural units differ from those of the amorphous phase by an increased content of SiO2. Table 1 presents the chemical composition of the foam glass crystalline material according to the results obtained from the energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDAX micro analyzer). On this basis, we can draw the conclusion that the spatial heterogeneity of the glass phase is caused by the disso lotion of the residual quartz of the glass granulate during the primary treatment of the sample at the foaming stage, which is confirmed by the results of the X ray powder diffraction analysis. The X ray powder diffraction analysis of the glass granulate was performed on a Shimadzu X ray diffract to meter XRD_7000 in the scan angle range core spending to the observation of the principal reflection of _quartz (d = 0.334 nm, Cu K, = 0.154 nm). The X ray diffraction patterns were recorded in the course of heating of the glass granulate sample with the use of a high temperature chamber at temperatures of 773, 873, 973, 1073, 1173, and 1273 K with isothermal holding at each temperature for 20 min and in the course of cooling to 773 K in steps of 373 K also with isothermal holding of the sample at each temperature. The process of SiO2 dissolution was investigated by analyzing the change in the integrated intensity of the principal reflection of quartz in the studied temperature range. The intensity of diffraction peaks nonlinearly changes and, after passing through the maximum at a temperature of 900 °C, smoothly decreases, which indicates a decrease in the fraction of the crystalline phase.
During the cooling of the glass granulate sample, there occur processes associated with the phase transition of quartz, which can be judged from the shape of the diffraction reflections in the X ray diffraction patterns shown in Fig. 3. At temperatures in the range from 1275 to 875 K, the diffraction reflections are characterized by a small half width and a high intensity and adequately described by the Gaussian distribution. At lower temperatures, the lines are anomalously broadened in shape and their intensity is relatively low. After the secondary heat treatment of the glass granulate sample, the incommensurate phase, which, according to the data available in the literature, arises in the vicinity of the phase transition of quartz and whose existence was established in [5, 6], main 100 nm.
According to our X ray diffraction data, the aforementioned phase transition is observed at a temperature of 873 K. This temperature is also confirmed by the data available in the literature . By using the known formula , we determined the activation energy of the reverse phase transition, XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 277 which is accompanied by the formation of Nano clusters. This energy amounts to 370 kJ/mol, which is in agreement with the activation energy of 360 kJ/mol reported in . The size of structural units was calculated using the X ray diffraction analysis according to the techniques described in [1, 2] from the measured values of then terplanar distance for SiO2. It was established that the microstructure of the foam glass crystalline material prepared in our work represents a superposition of micro volumes formed by regular polyhedral of the tetrahedron type with a face size of 0.7645 nm, which are joined together by bonds with lengths lying in the range 20–100 nm. The amorphous component represents a network of double SiO4 tetrahedral that form clusters with sizes of the order of Lc = 2.40 nm. These clusters, which were revealed in the glass by high res elution scanning electron microscopy in , have the form of triple tetrahedral. By using the data of these micrographs and tabulated values of the atomic radii of silicon and oxygen, we calculated the cluster size: Lc = 2.4 nm.
1. Dolino, G., Bachheimer, J.P., Berge, B., and Zeyen, C.M.E., Incommensurate Phase of Quartz: I. Elastic Neutron Scattering, J. Phys. (Paris), 1984, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 361–371.
2. Liebau, F., Structural Chemistry of Silicates, Berlin: Springer, 1985. Translated under the title Strukturnaya khimiya silikatov, Moscow: Mir, 1988.
3. West, A.R., Solid State Chemistry and Its Applications, New York: Wiley, 1987.
Translated under the title Khimiya tverdogo tela. Teoriya i prilozhenie, Moscow:
Mir, 1988, part 1.
Modification of Structural and Rheological Features of Composite Crude Oil Transported by “Usa-Ukhta-Yaroslavl” Oil-Trunk Pipeline Using Chemical Reagents and Magnetic Treatment E.A. Budovaya1, T.V. Novikova1 Research supervisors: E.V. Beshagina1, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, U.V. Loskutova2, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Linguistic advisor: E.V. Andreeva, teacher National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia, email@example.com Institute of Petroleum Chemistry SO RAS 4 Akademicheskyi ave., Tomsk, 634021, Russia Nowadays some problems connected with degradation of rheological characteristics arise while extra-heavy crude oil extraction, transportation and storage. With decrease of temperature asphaltenes, tars and protoparafSection VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English fin waxes are deposited on sidewalls of technological equipment and pipes.
It led to significant processes disturbance.
The magnetic field energy is one of the most effective, profit-proved and available sources of energy which are able to intensify different processes.
In recent years pour-point depressants (PPD) are also extensively used when transporting highly paraffinic viscous crude.
The purpose of this study is to investigate influence of chemical reactants and magnetic treatment (MT) on the structural and rheological features of composite Usa oil transported by “Usa-Ukhta-Yaroslavl” oil-trunk pipeline.
The magnetic treatment has been realized using the magnetic system “MAUT”. It contains the Ne-Fe-B alloy and can operate with magnetic induction amplitude 0,35 T or less. It allows generating the high density inhomogeneous magnetic field using the configuration of parallel and orthogonal magnetic fields.
The object of the research is Usa crude which can be characterized as highly paraffinic(app. 8 %), highly resinous(app. 16,9 %) oil with high content of asphaltenes (app.3,3 %) and high pour point(+2 °C).
In the process of the pour point research, critical shear stress and plastic viscosity have been measured and analyzed (Table 1).
Table 1. Rheological features of treated and untreated oil at different temperature conditions Pour Critical share stress 0, Plastic viscosity, mPа*s Pa Oil sample point, °C 30 °C 20 °C 15 °C 30 °C 20 °C 15 °C Untreated +1,4 0,1 0,2 11,4 8,3 27,6 103,6 Oil after MT +3,1 0,2 0,1 0,6 17,5 38,0 70,6 Oil+PPD -1,4 0,1 0,1 0,7 8,5 21,5 62,5 Oil+PPD after MT +2,5 0,2 9,2 10,3 7,5 44,7 336,8 At the temperature of 30 °C 0 was observed to increase twofold (by 2 times) after MT.
But with temperature lowing to 20 and 15 °C the critical share stress has substantially decreased by 2 and 19 times. At the temperature of 30 and 20 °C viscosity of MT sample has risen by 2 and 1,4 times.
With temperature decline to 15 °C viscosity has decreased by 30 %.
The sample of crude oil with addition of pour-point depressant DPN-1 has also been treated using the magnetic field. At temperatures of 40 and 30 °C insignificant viscosity depletion has been noticed, however it has risen by 2 and 5 times as the temperature has been lowing.
The measuring of pour point shows that the MT of given crude does not affect positively on it, because almost in every case the pour point of samples has grown despite the type of treatment. The positive result has been XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 279 reached only when the DPN-1 was added in crude. The pour point has decreased by 3 °C.
The addition of PPD DPN-1 allows declining the critical shear stress and plastic viscosity. At 15 °C the plastic viscosity has increased by 40 %. The MT of this sample resulted in its growing by 5,4 times.
Thus the MT of composite Usa oil with addition of PPD DPN-1 led to degradation of its viscosity and temperature features in the temperature range of 40-15 °C.
The viscosity enhancement has also been noted in case of sample untreated by PPD after MT at the temperatures of 40-20 °C. Temperature lowing to 15 °C allows declining viscosity by 30 % and the critical shear stress by 19 times.
Low effectiveness of Usa oil MT can be connected with high content of asphaltenes and tars. Its molecules polarization in the magnetic field initiate deep structural modifications which are attended by destruction of the structure and appearance of new resistant oil aggregates at the expense of coagulation.
1. R.A. Terteryan. Oils, crude and fuels pour-point depressants. Moscow: Khimia, 1990. 237.
2. U.V. Loskutova, N.V. Judina. Impact of magnetostaticfield on structural and mechanical properties of paraffinic oil.//Neftekhimia. 2004.T. 44. № 1. 61-67.
Fire-resistive translucent glazing A.V. Epifantseva Supervisor – d.t.s, professor, O.V. Kazmina Linguist – c.p.s, docent L.V. Maletina Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.org Designing modern building structures is changing the appearance of cities and the environment. Nowadays more than 60-80 % building structures such as multistory residential buildings, office buildings, business centers, airports, road and rail, river and sea terminals are architectural glazing.
Due to increasing of terrorism, acts of vandalism and natural disasters, more attention should be paid on people safety and health. Fire is still one of the worst disasters that threatens people life and health, destroying or damaging life.
Fire safety is the important problem that should be solved before building structures exploiting. It is necessary to take into consideration all the 280 Section VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English requirements for fire-resistive products made of glass. Therefore, fire protection design in construction and architecture is particularly relevant.
Now there are four main types of fire-resistive glass :
— reinforced glass;
— tempered flat glass made by special technology;
— laminated glass;
— double - glazing window.
Each of these windows has its own advantages and disadvantages and field of application. The laminated glass is chosen as an object of study in this report. The design includes a number of glass sheets with layers of swelling material between them.
The aim of the report is to develop the translucent swelling mixture, the basis of the fire-resistive glass.
The literature review revealed that the solution of sodium silicate with additionally introduced components was one of the most frequently used constituent in the production of fire-resistive products. The foreign and Russian patents, having been analyzed in this research, demonstrated a wide variety of compounds having liquid glass. Table 1 shows three basic compounds as an example which were selected for the far-further studies.
Nowadays, fire proof glass is produced in accordance with the multilayer technology. The layers of liquid glass are located between two sheets of special composition glasses. When these glasses are exposed to fire, an intermediate layer is swelling and expanding with making foam, which remains the structural integrity of glass longer, creating the barrier to the spread of fire. Furthermore, the foam is sealing material, which increases the amount of heart and incident connected with ignition of combustible material .
Table 1. The composition of translucent swelling mixtures Component content (%) in the mixture Components of the mixture A solution of sodium silicate 5,82 - 11,47 28,9 else Hydroxide of tetramythyl ammonia - 31,3 Gelatin - - 4,0 Polyvinyl alcohol - - 6,0 – 10,0 Colloidal silica 22,11-28,68 - Glycerin - 15,6 1,0 Hydrated sulfate of the metal - - 2,0-5,0 Production of fire-resistive glass includes some technology stages.
In the first stage required number of glass sheets is glued together along the perimeter by special two-side sticky tape. In the second stage the translucent XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 281 composition is prepared and the cavity between the sheets of glass is filled by this composition. In the last stage after filling in the composition framework the product is heated under carefully temperature and humidity to increase gelation and obtain a light translucent layer free of bubbles.
During the thermal effects the formation of foam layer takes place as a result of physical and chemical processes. These foamy carbon layers have thermal insulations properties and provide effectively protect the materials from the fire .
The period of integrity of the experimental samples without destroying is defined by special technique, simulating a fire, was 30 minutes.
The production of fire-resistive glass spends a lot of time and money to improve the quality of products, which are widely used for interiors, facades with various frame systems.
1. Borulko V., Borulko P., “Glass and fire protection//windows. Doors. Stainedglass windows”. M: № 3. 2005. p. 17-23.
2. “Glass of the world”. Professional journal.-2011.-№ 7.-M.-p. 56-59.
3. V. Korneev., V. Danilov. “Liquid and water glass”.-1996.-SP.-216 p.
The use of aril diazonium tosylates as initial substrata for synthesis of various stelbene derivatives A.G. Fefelova, P.S. Postnikov, M.E. Trusova Scientific adviser – Ph.D., Prof. V.D. Filimonov Linguistic advisor – S. teacher V.N. Demchenko Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia, FeAnastasia@tpu.ru The stelbene derivatives are used as bleaching substances , construction blocks for the synthesis of medicinal substances, synthetic drugs are widely used in medical practice, possessing estrogenic activity which are not destroyed in a digestive path, unlike hormon preparations. Diethylstilbestrol and sin-estrol refer to synthetic estrogens. These substances and some other have found stelbene derivatives have application in oncological practice: they stop the growth of the prostate gland tumor.
The necessity for various stelbene derivatives development has led to the search of their synthesis methods. One of such variants is the use of diazonium salts, in particular tetrafluoroborates, in reactions of c-c combination, with the use of palladic catalysts. Heck-Matsuda reactions are mostly carried out with diasonium salts having a tetrafluoroborates anion. Crystalline salts are typically prepared from the corresponding aniline by the 282 Section VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English action of nitrite in the presence of fluoroboric acid or BF3*Et2O. A safer protocol, involving the in situ preparation of diazonium salts, has been elegantly proposed by Andrus and co-wokers. However, the procedure still requires the use of an equimolar quantity of BF3*Et2O and furnished styrene type compounds with quite modest yields (17-62 %) . There are also other systems with the use of diazonium salt of tetrafluoroborates as initial substrata. However these substances have a number of disadvantages, for example, they are not stable and this is the reason of their explosion; in addition they are badly soluble in water.
On the Biotechnology and organic chemistry department a new class of diazonium salts - tosylates has been developed. These substances have a number of advantages in comparison with classical diazonium salts, for example, they are stable, can be stored for long periods of time, they are soluble in water and in many other organic solvents . Aril diazonium tosylates are used as initial substrata for receiving various stelbene derivatives (Scheme 1). Under the influence of palladium acetate, in alcohol, various derivatives of aril diazonium tosylates cooperated with styrene when heated. The time of the reaction does not exceed 10 minutes that testifies to high reactionary ability of aril diazonium tosylates.
The following conclusions can be made:
1) Obtained yields are commensurable with previous works or slightly less.
2) One of obvious advantages of this method is that the time of the reaction exceed 10 minutes. While, when using tetrafluoroborates, the reaction lasts several hours.
3) Further work is necessary for study more detailed of this method, for the selection of optimal conditions of the reaction and for the achievement of maximal yields.
1. Yemelyanov A., Optically bleaching substances and their application in the textile industry, M, 1971.
2. Francois Le Callonnec, Unprecedented substoichiometric use of hazardous aril diazonium tosylates in the Heck-Matsuda reaction via a double catalytic cycle, Organic letters, 2011, Vol. 13, № 10, 2646-2649.
XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 283
3. Filimonov V.D., Trusova M.E., Postnikov P.S., Krasnokutskaya E.A., Lee Y.M., Hwang H.Y., Kim H. and Ki-Whan Chi. Unusually Stable, Versatile, and Pure Arenediazonium Tosylates: their Preparation, Structures, and Synthetic Applicability. Org. Lett., 2008, 10, 3961.
Investigation of the high-ferrous bauxite using possibility in the aluminosilicate proppants technology L.P. Govorova, A.A. Reshetova Supervisor – d.t.s., professor T.V. Vakalova Linguist – lecturer V.N. Demchenko National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia, laraGVred@mail.ru In connection with the aggravated economic conditions the use of domestic raw materials in the refractory clay aluminosilicate ceramic technology is of particular importance. This necessitates the search for possible ways of using such materials in ceramic technology and developing technoXIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 285 logical methods to improve performance properties of aluminosilicate ceramic materials. To solve these problems, investigations to establish a system of process management techniques targeted at the synthesis of aluminosilicate ceramic materials with high strength properties, high fire resistance and heat resistance are carried out.
This work deals with complex investigation of clay Timan bauxite deposit of the Komi Republic (GBT-1 and GBT -2) and the group of fields Barzas Gavrilovsk site (BG).
The chemical composition of the studied bauxites is determined by their
mineralogical composition. It is characterized mainly by five components:
alumina, silica, iron oxide, titanium dioxide, and crystallized water (table 1).
Table 1. Chemical composition of the investigated raw materials Content of oxides, wt.
% Code SiO2 Al2O3 TiO2 Fe2O3 MnO CaO MgO K2O Na2O mпрк Timan bauxite GBT-1 9,50 51,97 2,29 22,12 0,46 0,41 1,30 0,33 0,04 11,58 GBT-2 17,62 47,80 2,73 13,88 0,41 1,80 1,25 0,22 0,06 14,23 Gavrilovsk bauxite BG 20,19 36,09 4,35 16,35 0,10 0,81 2,96 0,35 0,08 18,72 According to mineralogical composition Timan bauxites can be highferrous (containing iron oxide in the calcined state 16 – 25 wt. %), siliceous (with siliceous modulus of 2,7 – 5,4), clay bauxite of hematite-kaoliniteboehmite nature with kaolinite content of 20 – 38 wt. %, boehmite content wt. % in test samples.
Assessment of mineralogical composition quality of the Gavrilovsk bauxite with the X-ray method showed that gibbsite and kaolinite are its rock-forming minerals. Impurity minerals are mostly quartz, illite, carbonates (calcite) and iron-containing minerals in the form of pyrite and hematite.
Mineralogical composition characteristics of Timan bauxites (high content of iron impurities) result in their complete sintering at 1350 °C to form of a sufficiently strong structure with mechanical properties (compressive strength) at the level of 50-55 MPa.
Gavrilovsk bauxite is sintered at 1400 °C, the value of water absorption is less than 5 wt. % with compressive strength of 80 MPa.
Therefore, the presence of gibbsite alloy with iron-containing minerals in chemical and mineralogical composition of investigated bauxite as the main mineral determines its testing feasibility as a raw material component in the aluminosilicate proppants technology.
286 Section VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English
Develop ceramic material for using in medicine by method of slip K.S. Kamyshnaya Scientific Supervisor: Prof., Dr.t.s. T.A. Xabas Linguist: Dr.p.s. Maletina L.V.
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia, email@example.com Annotation: In this report process formation of slip molding and fundamental demands to materials for medicine were decrypted. Basic structure of zirconium oxide was learnt. The samples were prepared from different compounds zirconium oxide stabilized by yttrium oxide and aluminum oxide. Results of shrinkage, spongy defect, density of samples were got and further aims of research were designated on basis of experiment.
Teeth implantation is very actually nowadays. More and more people lose their teeth from stress, a poor nutrition or insufficient hygiene. Beautiful healthy teeth are visiting card of successful person and integral part of his image . Materials which apply in stomatology can be biological compatibility. Biological compatibility is lack of property capacity which can mess or become worse of biological system. Biological compatibility of stomatologic materials becomes a serious problem for stomatology. The cases of allergy to such biocompatible substance as gold are known .
Ceramics on the basis of tetragonal zirconium oxide (T-ZrO2) came to the attention because of how possible material for orthopedics because TZrO2 has high characteristic strength biocompatibility . The research of XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 287 tetragonal zirconium oxide as biocompatible material was initiated in the late 60-x of XX century. But the extensive of impurity in raw materials zirconium oxide in medicine was limited by radioactive. Nowadays the available processes of purification allow to get powder of zirconium oxide of high purity that can be used for biomedical aims.
As the result of the above investigation of the aim of the research is to develop the optimal composition for all-ceramic tooth implantance. Powders of zirconium oxide stabilized of yttrium oxide and aluminum oxide were chosen for research. The samples were producing by the method of slip molding. The slip molding is a method of molding of items from ceramic slurries. Ceramic slurries are called high concentration suspension of powders in liquid .Ceramic slurry are filled in the by method of conveying liquid form and continues top up to that moment when cavity of form shouldn’t filled by the molding mass .
Consequently, 6 samples of different compounds have been prepared from zirconium oxide stabilized by yttrium oxide and aluminum oxide.
Molding of samples has been done in metallic rigging, blurred by oil, on gypsum plate. Time of drying was 48 hours after molding. After that the samples had been burned at the temperature of 1600 °C with its increase up to Т~2 °C in minute. Moreover, shrinkage, spongy defect, density of samples have been accounted after burning (method of hydrostatic weighing with degassing). Results of research are summarized in table 1.
Table 1. Results of research.
Shrinkage Humidity Al2O3/ZrO2, after burn- spongy Density, № of ceramic shrinkage,% defect,% g/cm3 % ing in width, slurry, % % 1 95/5 25 7 9,74 4,99 15,966 3,1937 81 9,55 6,02 18,72 3,1098 2 90/10 25 82 7,55 5,94 18,45 3,1060 91 9,36 7,73 22,61 2,9254 3 85/15 27,5 92 8,79 7,13 21,11 3,0118 4 80/20 30 101 12,70 8,95 25,68 2,8688 288 Section VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English
Tobermorite synthesis on the base of industrial glass waste E.I. Lebedeva Research supervisor: PhD, professor, O.V. Kazmina Language expert: PhD(Edu), docent, L.V. Maletina National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.org The silicates are an voluminous class of compounds generated by a dioxide of silicon and oxides with other elements. The variety of silicates is concerned by ability of silicon atoms to incorporate themselves by means of XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 289 atoms of oxygen and depending on the nature of metal oxides and their parity with silicon oxide forming tetrahedrons or groups of depending various structure. One of widespread structural silicate types is the chained silicates.
Tobermorite is a silicate of calcium with the general formula Ca5Si6O16 (OH) 2nH2O (where letter “n” is variable from two to eight molecules). This natural mineral has been discovered for the first time in 1880 in Scotland on the island Mull in Tobermori. This silicate is a hydrothermal product of carbonate rocks, as a result of a metasomatism formation. Usually it has white and light pink shades, half-transparency and silky shine .
Practical interest to tobermorite is closely connected with using it how a material, capable to take from the polluted water some radioactive metals (lead, cadmium and others). Such application tobermorite is of determined by peculiarities of its structure.
In 2011 the magazine «Glass» was published an article about a new method of water treating by tobermorite from synthesized glass waste, without instructions of initial structure and a synthesis mode is currently.
The aim of this research was to develop the composition of an initial compounds on the basis of secondary glass waste and select optimal tobermotite model for up optimum for heat treatment . Tobermirite compounds is arranged as follows: silicon and oxygen tetrahedrons are jointed in the form of the continuous isolated chains, each tetrahedron has free valence with the help of which cations of metal layers incorporate among themselves. Water molecules arranged within the layers of calcium dioxide .
The following as the basic components for synthesis tobermorite in the given work materials such as: industrial glass waste of electro-vacuum glass of mark SL96, a lime (GOST 9179-77) and caustic sodium (GOST 2263to synthesis tobermorite is used. The chemical composition of materials is summarized in tab. 1.
Table 1. The chemical composition of materials Oxides content, % Component SiO2 Al2O3 CaO MgO Na2O K 2O Fe2O3 glass 72 - 6 4 16 1 lime - - 95 5 - - - NaOH - - - - 98,5 - - The proportion of components in oxygen silicon initial compound is calculated subject to a chemical composition of its components and the chemical formula of the mineral.
To react in corpora in autoclave processing it is necessary for initial materials to have thin dispersion composition, therefore the compound was preliminary crushed in a spherical mill to a powdery state with the subsequent pressing of samples in the form of tablets 290 Section VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English (d = 30 mm). The samples prepared in such way were subjected by autoclave heat treatment at pressure 0,8 МPа and 170 wasps with water steams for 6 hours .
According to the results of the X-rays analysis it was established that from a compound of investigated composition at the chosen mode the autoclave heat treatments is synthesized by tobermorite. It is supported by the presence of the cores Diffraction peaks of the given calcium hydro-silicate.
Thus, at the given stage of work basic possibility of tobermorite synthesis on the basis of industrial glass waste is established.
1. Libau F. Structural chemistry of the silicates. M.: Mir, 1988.
2. Antipina S.A., Vereshchagin V.I. The Heat-resistant material for molding of aluminum. // News of the Tomsk polytechnic university, 2009. 314 р.
4. http://www.research-techart.ru Spectrophotometric definition of carotenoids in eggs and egg products O.N. Levchenko, N.M. Mordvinova Scientific adviser: D.Sc(Chem), professor A.A. Bakibaev Linguistic adviser: assistant professor A.N. Oleinik National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia;
Sibtest Co., email@example.com It is known that carotenoids play an important role in photosynthesis processes, carry out protective functions. They have also found wide application in the food-processing industry and medicine due to their powerful antioxidant activity. The content of carotenoids in a yolk of a chicken egg characterises sufficienciecy of birds with an A-vitamin food and is simultaneously used on estimating incubation qualities of eggs.
The analysis of carotenoids in food and fodder objects according to references data is carried out, basically, by chromatographic methods. The spectophotometery in visible and UV-areas can be used for determination of authenticity, degree of cleanliness and quantitative interpretation of the total amount of carotenoids.
Application of spectrophotometric methods is rather perspective as it allows to fulfil determination avoiding difficult procedures of preliminary isolation of components and helps to reduce time for a sample preparation.
We had applied a performance technique of measurements of carotenoids mass fraction. This technique is intended for kid food and children's XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 291 dietary food, according to the GOST R 51181-98. The given technique is based on photometric determination of carotenoids in an extract of lipids received from a food concentrate by means of organic solvents: hexane or petroleum ether. Optical density of an extract was measured by spectrophotometer at 450 nanometers in 10 mm cells using the solvent as reference.
Quantitative determination of carotenoids had been carried out according to calibration chart constructed by means of series of potassium dichromate solutions. After processing the egg yolk assay results we have found, that the optical density analytical signal is out of the measuring range of carotenoids. Thus, according to our data the technique can’t be used for determination of carotenoids in a yolk.
Further, we have applied a method of alkaline hydrolysis followed by extraction. As organic solvents for the extraction the admixture of xylene and octane was used. Yolk samples were fully transferred to the test tube for a centrifuge and added 2 ml 1 n of a spirituous solution of caustic potassium. Then sample was stirred with a glass rod before formation of a homogeneous admixture and sustained for hydrolysis on water bath at temperature 60 °C for 30 minutes. After words test tubes were cooled with cold water for 5 minutes and then a xylene-octane admixture was added to each test tube. Test tubes were closed by stoppers, then we were centrifugated 7 minutes at 1200 rev./min. The top layer of centrifugate was transferred with a pipette to a ditch of a spectrophotometer and carotenoids were scanned
photometrically at a wavelength of 460 nanometers. The content of carotenoids was defined according to the formula:
Х = 4,8 х Е х 2 х п,
Х - the required content of carotenoids in mkg/g;
4,8 - factor according to Bessei for carotin;
Е - optical density of assay at 460 nanometers;
2 - recalculation factor on 1 gramme of a yolk;
п - dilution (quantity of ml of a xylol-octane admixture).
Thus, in the given work optimum conditions for spectrophotometric definition of carotenoids in yolks of eggs and egg products are chosed.
The received results of the content of carotenoids in an egg yolk are in a comprehensible range according to literary data. In eggs, from the most widespread suppliers in Tomsk, the content of carotenoids varies from 11,2 to 20,1 mkg.
1. GOST Р 51181-98. Alimentary concentrates of children and dietary food. A performance technique of measurements of carotenoids mass fraction.
2. BFS 42-3128-98, «The Dragee of beta carotin 0,0025».
292 Section VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English
3. FS 42-3182-95, «Ayekol».
4. Hui Ni, Guo-qing, Hui Ruan, Qi-he Chen, Feng Chen. Application of derivative ratio spectrophotometry for determination of -carotene and astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma extract.//J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2005 June, 6 (6), pp. 514Britton G. Structure and properties of carotenoids in relation to function.//FASEB J. 1995, 9, pp. 1551-1558.
6. Ong ASH, Tee ES. Natural sources of carotenoids from plants and oils.//Meth Enzymol.1992, 213, pp. 142-167.
Preparation construction composite material on the basis of silica fume and acetylene quicklime A.V. Maksyakova Scientific Supervisor: Prof., Dr. V.A. Lotov Linguistic advisor: V.N. Demchenko National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.org In the production of construction materials are consumed a significant amount of natural mineral resources that requires a large amount of energy.
In connection with constant increase of energy costs is actual to reduce the energy consumption both in the production of efficient building materials and service life of buildings. The decrease in construction costs is provided by the use of new effective structural materials due to industrial wastes. The number of products which have high potential for innovation but don’t receive a large-scale commercial application is sufficiently large. Lack of defined approaches to manage the process of traditional products substitution by innovative ones on the hand, the demand for their practical use by innovative companies producing substitute products on the other hand determine the relevance of this study.
Objective: To obtain a significance material with high performance on the basis of silica fume and acetylene quicklime with the low-temperature technologies.
Experimental procedure: As initial components was used microsilica powder with a bulk density of 200 kg/m3. For the formation of calcium hydrosilicates without additional conditions requiring energy powder of acetylene quicklime (no additives) was used, which gave off sufficient energy for the formation of hydrosilicates when mixed with water. For the experiment were taken and weighed batch of silica fume quicklime in 1:1 ratio. Starting material abrasion is accompanied by the decrease of dangerous defects that leads to strength increase. This results in the obtaining and use of nanopartiXIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 293 cles. Then powders are mixed and covered with water at temperature 100 °C. The energy released is used for hydrosilicates formation that doesn’t require additional heat input. Calcium hydrosilicates formation can be seen from the data of differential thermal analysis made with NETZSCH STA 449 F3 Jupiter.
Further, molded product, were left in a hydraulic bath for 48 hours. One part of the samples after hydraulic bath was left to harden in air, the second part of the sample was subjected to autoclave treatment, and the third part of the samples was steamed. After the experiments the samples were left to harden in air and monitored data on the first, third and seventh days. The experimental results can be seen in the histograms (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Physico-chemical characteristics of the sample on the first, third and seventh days of hardening.
Thus, experiments have shown that treatment of products with steam in the autoclave at elevated pressure (9 atm) at corresponding temperature (174,5 °C) provides the best performance than other methods. This is caused by the fact that the autoclave treatment, accompanied by the formation of calcium hydrosilicates, improves properties of building materials.
294 Section VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English Thus we can conclude whether the use of silica fume and acetylene quicklime building materials production is reasonable.
1. Brunauer S., Greenbery S.A. «The hydration of tricalcium silikate and disilicate at room temperature. Proceedings of the fourth Int. Simp. Cemistry of cement, Washington, 1960, v. 1, p. 135-165.
2. Taylor H.F. «Cement Chemistry» Academic press, London, 1990.
FiBrA installations with nanosorption FilLis cleaning materials for purification of aquatic environments from the chemical and microbiological contamination D.V. Martemyanov, E.I. Korotkova, D.N. Muhortov Scientific Supervisor – D.Sc.(Chem), Professor E.I. Korotkova Linguistic adviser – Assistant Professor, A.N. Oleinik National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia, email@example.com
IntroductionThe problem of drinking water is so far extremely acute .
The bad quality of drinking water is a serious danger to the health of the population in many regions of Russia and GUS countries . A real threat to human health is bacteriological contamination which is determined by the total number of bacteria and microbes in water. It should be kept in mind that even relatively safe bacteria in their life are organic substances that not only affect the organoleptic indicators of water, but also by entering chemical reactions (e.g. chlorine) can create toxic and carcinogenic compounds . Furthermore, water should be cleaned from chemical and mechanical contaminants.
Research company "FiBrA" (Russia) is developing a water purification installations of series "FiBrA" designed to clean drinking and natural waters from microbiological contamination of ions of heavy metals and arsenic as well as a number of other impurities.
Nowadays five kinds of plants, effectively purifying water in tourism country cottage and home conditions were developed. Water purification installations "FiBrA" are good that with compact size. They can purify water without electricity and without any physical effort. Purification efficiency of aqueous media by means of filters series "FiBrA" is to use [4-5] in these installations nanosorption FilLis materials.
XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 295 Theoretical basis FilLis materials have a modified surface charge. Their key active components are iron oxy-hydroxide put on a mineral carrier material, and boehmite in nonspherical (2 nm wide and 50—200 nm) particles.
Polluting particles and porous sorbent interact under the effect of two types of forces: Van der Waals forces which are short-range forces and forces of attraction, and interactions between electric double layers which may be either the forces of attraction or repulsion forces depending on the surface charge of polluting particles and pores. If the pollution particle and surface pores have different charges, in such a case it may be removed from the fluid in the electrokinetic collection.
The mechanism of action is based on the combined process of electrokinetic trapping, chemical adsorption, Van der Walls adsorption, and mechanical filtration. This joint action makes it possible to cover and remove a significantly wider range of substances and particles from water.
Technical specifications Specific surface area of the materials is 200-700 m2/g.
Performance of the installations of the series "FiBrA" is from 3 up to 30 l/h. FilLis effectively operates in the range from 4 to 9.5 pH.
Experimental results On the basis of tests carried out in the Centre of hygiene and epidemiology of Tomsk region and the Department of Microbiology and Virology SSMU (Siberian State Medical University) (Tomsk), it was found that these settings provide 100 % efficiency of any contaminated tap water from bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Sulphite-reducing clostridium, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus preudoanthracis with a concentration of up to 107 CFU (colony-forming unit)/ml.
Purification level on such elements as: arsenic, chromium, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, manganese at reference concentrations 5 MPC (maximum permissible concentration) is 97-100 %.
ConclusionsWater purification installation of series "FiBrA" effectively purifies water from various forms of pollution. In these installations it is possible to carry out material regeneration without removing them. They have a number of advantages over known ways to purify water such as UV sterilization, chemical treatment, membrane filtration.
1. Veselovskaya T.G., Lasychenkov Y., Antyufeev M.A.//Water Supply and Sewerage, 2009., 9-10, p. 104.
2. Chilap V.//Hygiene and sanitation, 2001., no. 8, p. 17.
296 Section VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English
3. Patsiya V.A., Shirokov S.N.//Reporter Russia., 2010. -No. 5, p. 41.
4. Lisetsky V.N., Lisetskya T.A., Merkusheva L.N., Sorbent for clearing water from ions of heavy metals//description of the invention to the patent, Tomsk, 2008, p. 1.
5. Lisetsky V.N., Lisetskya T.A., Repin V.E., Pugachev G. Sorbent and its receipt//description of the invention to the patent, Tomsk, 2004, p. 1.
The Impact Analysis of Process Variables on the Treatment of Crude Oil E.A. Novoseltceva Research supervisor — N.V. Usheva Linguistic adviser — A.A. Syskina National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.org Oil produced from the subsurface contains dissolved gases, water and salt. Preparation of crude oil in the oil fields lies in its separation (pressure decrease with the separation of associated gas), dehydration with the destruction of emulsions and sludge from the mechanical impurities. The presence of water in oil significantly increases the cost of transportation, mechanical impurities contribute to the stabilization of emulsions of oil and salt contained in the oil is hydrolyzed to form acids that destroy the metal equipment of processing plants.
In accordance with GOST R 51858-2002 oil supplied from fields to refineries by the content of chloride salts and water may be divided into three
groups as follows:
Table 1. Classification of the oil supplied from fields to refineries  norm for the oil groups Indicators I II III wt % water content 0,5 0,5 1,0 The content of chlorides, mg /l, maximum 100 200 300 Content of mechanical impurities, % wt, less 0,05 0,05 0,05 Characteristic features of modern technology are the mathematical modeling using specialized modeling systems.
Mathematical modeling of primary oil processing is a necessary step in solving the problems of analysis, optimization and efficiency of existing oil treatment facilities (OTF), the development of computer-aided design and production schedules for the design of OTF. However, the construction of mathematical models is impossible without experimental data. We used the experimental data (Table 2) with the UPN field in Eastern Siberia .
XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 297
Analysis of a parametric sensitivity of oil distillation column V.V. Pavlik, A.V. Volf Research supervisor: M.A. Samborskaya, PhD Linguist: E.V. Andreeva, Teacher National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia, email@example.com Distillation – is one of the main technological processes in refining industry and one of the key factors increasing profitability of a refining plant.
An optimal control of distillation columns provides higher resource efficiency, high yield of desire products of appropriate quality and stable operation of a column under different disturbances.
A distillation is characterized as multifactor object of controlling with many variables. So careful study of the object on all stages is necessary for effective control of a column. And one of such stages is analysis of column parametric sensitivity. It let determine potentially dangerous areas of condiSection VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English tions and structural parameters. Work unit in these areas is undesirable, because can causes accident situations.
The subject of the research is estimation of parametric sensitivity of oil distillation column and analysis influence of construction and conditionals changes.
The research object is oil distillation column, designed to light distillate collection.
There is a coefficient of sensitivity for quantitative assessment of parametric sensitivity:
- is not normalized coefficient of sensitivity, F – is function of where the state of element, Ei – is ranging parameter.
In accordance to (1) we’ve got coefficients of top part of the column temperature and pressure, and distillate content from reflux ratio, vapor and liquid flows. These relations are necessary for further optimization of the process and allows determine potentially unsafe parameter diapasons.
The objective functions are concentrations of light components in distillate with: NBP 16, NBP 57, NBP 73, NBP 85, NBP 100. Relations of coefficients of sensitivity from trays number in the column were analyzed. The results of calculations are in the pic. 1 and pic. 2.
Picture 1. Relation CS of vapor flow from trays number in the column for full condenser XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.
П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 299 Picture 2. Relation CS of vapor flow from trays number in the column for partial condenser
In result following conclusions could be formulated:
1) For all components exepting component with NBP 16, relation CS of vapor flow from trays number has oscillatory character. What is more, amplitude of oscillation decreases with trays number increasing.
2) In general, stability of the system increases when trays number increases.
3) The calculations allow to determine the number of trays, when the column works in area of low parametric sensitivity, what guarantee high stability of the system. And at the same time the capital costs are not high.
refractory sulphide ores. The technology of gold recovery from this type of minerals includes a flotation with following oxidation of the goldconcentrates. Currently used methods of oxidizing roasting, bacterial decomposition and pressure oxidation of sulfides .
Oxidized flotation concentrates using bio-oxidation process is biokeks which arrive at the hydrometallurgical processing to extract gold, contain from 3 to 8 % of the sulfide sulfur in the form of pyrrhotite, pyrite and stibnite. Used in the current process of pre-aeration additional oxidation of sulphide sulfur content of the oxidized biokek not always allows full oxidize residual sulfides because of large variations in the mineral component of oxidized flotation concentrate.
In order to increase the effectiveness of the additional oxidation of sulphide sulfur prior, as well as to reduce its negative impact on the sorption of gold leaching process, studies were carried out on low-temperature oxidation of sulfides using autoclaving process. As an oxidizer used industrial oxygen. The process of autoclave additional oxidation was studied at temperatures of 25 °C to 60 °C and an oxygen pressure of 0,1 to 0,5 MPa. During the studies it was found that best results were obtained at 40 - 45 °C and an oxygen pressure of 0,5 MPa. Kinetic dependence of the low-temperature autoclave after additional oxidation of sulphide sulfur bio-oxidation process was constructed. Upon reaching the degree of decomposition of residual sulphides in the magnitude of 45 – 49 % after the autoclave decomposition at a temperature of 45 °C gold extraction increase in by 4,6 % and the consumption of sodium cyanide decrease.
Thus, the combination of bio-oxidation processes and the lowtemperature autoclave expansion reduces the content of the sulfide component in the gold biokeks that greatly improves the technological characteristics of gold extraction.
1. A. Meretukov MA Gold: Chemistry, mineralogy, metallurgy. - M.: Publishing house "Ore and Metals", 2008 – 528 p.
XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 301
Calculations on the computer modeling system have shown that the process can be carried out in several ways.
Fig. 1. Rate of temperature rise in the reactor (set production LAB 180 tons / day) Fig. 1 shows the variant of dehydrogenation process of high molecular weight linear paraffins on the olefin production plant at LLC "KINEF". The new regime should start at 264th day of operation, and the reactor should be shutdown at 291st day of operation.
In conclusion I would like to give recommendations for engineers. For maintaining the production of alkylbenzeneon the level of 180 tons per day it is necessary to raise the temperature from 481 °C to 484 °C, and to increase water supply from 7 l/h to 9 l/h. Further yield of by-products, diolefins, at the end of the cycle in hard mode increased from 0.65 wt. % to
0.8 wt. %.
Thus, the efficiency of the dehydrogenation catalyst depends on the predefined product yield and technological conditions, which should be set based on the composition of raw materials and a planned shutdown of the reactor.
1. Ivashkina E.N. Improvement of industrial processes for production of linear alkylbenzenes: monograph / Ivashkina E.N., Ivanchina E.D., Kravtsov A.V., Tomsk Polytechnic University. - Tomsk: Publishing house of Tomsk Polytechnic University, 2011.-358 p.
2. Kravtsov A.V. etc. The analysis and forecast performance of the reactor block the process of dehydrogenation of n-paraffins using mathematical models // Refining and Petrochemicals, 2008. Number 2. p. 16-22.
XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 303 Modeling of low-temperature separation, taking into account the efficiency of separation equipment Olga A. Sipkova, Elena S. Khlebnikova Research supervisor: associate professor, DSc (Che) Natalia V. Usheva Linguistic advisor: senior English instructor Alexandra V. Makarovskikh National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, firstname.lastname@example.org Every year the role of gas in the global energy balance is becoming more essential. The widespread method of low-temperature separation (LTS) is used for gas and gas condensate preparation. LTS is the moisture condensation and dissolved heavy hydrocarbons in the gas at low temperatures.
The relatively low extraction of hydrocarbons on gas condensate fields is resulted from the application of LTS at temperature up to -30 °C . Improving the efficiency of existing plants and ensuring the required quality and quantity of commodity product can be the result of complex gas treatment plant (CGTP) optimization [2, 3].
Analyzing the causes of LTS efficiency attention mainly was paid to the low efficiency of the separation apparatus, temperature and pressure conditions violation of the process.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of technological parameters on the yield of marketable gas, development of the efficiency coefficient (EC) calculation methods and the modeling system module determination of the CGTP optimal modes.
In the process of research temperature and pressure were varied at different stages of separation concerning a given operating running regime of separation unit (Table 1).
Table 1. The parameters of given operating running regime Parameter Separator Temperature, °C Pressure, MPa 1 22,5 5,6 2 0,5 7,1 3 -33,7 3,9 With the use of modeling systems phase equilibrium constants and basic parameters of the separation process were calculated: the condensate yield, the yield of marketable gas, the content of C5+ hydrocarbons taking into account of EC, moisture content and dew point for hydrocarbons.
Based on literature data  EC depending on the surface tension, density, viscosity, pipe diameter, flow of raw materials, the diameter of bubbles 304 Section VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English in entrained phase have been analyzed. It was concluded that the the greatest impact is affected by flow of raw materials.
=0.198*F3 -0.129*F2 -1.75*F+2.491; d = 0.25; (1) =0.529* F3-2.994* F2+4.079*F-0.664; d = 0.20; (2) = 0.132*F4 -0.753* F3+1.032* F2-0.087*F+0.675; d = 0.15, (3) where - efficiency coefficient, F - flow rate, kg / h, d - the diameter of the pipe, m.
After analyzing the results, it should be noted that changes of the marketable gas composition (mol. %), taking into account EC are mainly observed for the C5+ components that characterize the ablation of liquid.
It was proved that the decrease in temperature or increase in pressure leads to increase in the yield of marketable gas and decrease in the condensate yield. The values of dew points correspond to the State Standard.
The obtained data were analyzed by parametric sensitivity, which was calculated as the ratio of change in yield of marketable gas and dew point temperature for hydrocarbons to the interval of pressure and temperature changes.
Thus, on the basis of the simulation system we have developed a program for calculating the composition of marketable gas components, taking into account the efficiency of separation equipment, the method for calculating EC was determined, and the module for calculating the parametric sensitivity was developed. That allows us to identify influence regularities of changes in process conditions, and use it evaluating the optimal modes of treatment plants.
1. Yu.P. Korotaev, Selected works. - Moscow: Nedra, 1999. T. 3. 364.
2. V.P. Tronov, Separation of gas and oil losses reducing. - Kazan: FAN, 2002.
3. V.I. Murin, Technology for natural gas and condensate processing.- M.: Nedra Business center, 2002. 517.
4. V.G. Ivanov, A.S. Maslov, A.V. Kravtsov, N.V. Usheva, A.A. Gavrikov, Improving the efficiency of the condensate field treatment technology// Gas industry. 2003. № 7.
XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 305 Research of Ammonium Diuranates Obtaining by Hydrolyze Products of Solid Carbamide D.G. Skalskaya, A.L. Tatarenko, M.V. Lishenko Scientific adviser – PhD(Chem), associate professor A.Y. Vodyankin Linguist – lecturer A.A. Kuznetcova National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia, email@example.com The final stage of hydrometallurgical production of nuclear fuel is the processes associated with the precipitation of chemical concentrates of uranium, its dehydration and drying. Chemical precipitation of uranium from solutions can be applied only for clear solutions .
A classical ADU process technology of ceramic uranium dioxide obtaining uses ammonia solution as a precipitation agent. It is produced by gaseous or liquid ammonia dilution in water. Ammonia, in turn, is a toxic, flammable and explosive substance. This fact makes need for special storage and exploitation. Ammonia solution also has free ammonia so it may be lost during transportation, storage and usage by volatilization. A possibility to use other ammonia-containing compounds, e.g. carbamide, is of a great interest. Carbamide is a non-toxic substance that is affected by hydrolysis at high temperatures becoming a source of ammonia . It will allow to decrease costs for transportation and to improve ecological properties of precipitation process.
It is known that interaction of ammonia with uranyl solutions gives insoluble polyuranates (salts of uranium acids). And composition of such compounds depends on conditions of its obtaining. All these uranates are hardly soluble compounds. The composition of the urinates can be expressed by the common formula Me2UnO3n+1, where n can take the values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and so on. On the other hand, it was found earlier that interaction of uranyl nitrate and carbamide in spirit solutions gives precipitations in the form of complex compounds UO2(NO3)2·n(NH2)2CO. The most stable of which is UO2(NO3)2·2(NH2)2CO .
The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of uranium precipitation by carbamide and definition of forming precipitations’ compound.
For the uranium precipitation process granulated carbamide grade A (GOST 2081-92) is used. The precipitation was carried out at temperature 90 °C, pH = 6 during 2 hours. The produced precipitations were rinsed by ammonium nitrate, then were filtrated and dried to air-dry state.
Concentration of uranium in solutions was determined by the method of calibration graph. Precipitation degree of uranium was 98,3 %, residual uranium content was 0,05 g/l.
306 Section VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English Fig. 1. Thermogramma of cake digestion The structure of resulting precipitations was determined by thermogravimetric method using thermal analyzer SDT Q600. The thermal decomposition curves of precipitations are shown on Fig. 1.
It is shown that decomposition of precipitations occurs in several stages which correspond to the maximum temperatures of 76 °C, 656 °C and 710 °C. Total weight loss was 12,3 %. According to the calculations obtained precipitates have the form of (NH4)2U4O13.
Thus, conducted experiments have shown that effective uranium precipitation by products of carbamide hydrolyses is possible. As a result of the interaction an insoluble precipitate is formed corresponding to the formula (NH4)2U4O13.
1. Turayev N.S., Zherin I.I. Chemistry and technology of uranium. Moscow:
CSIIATOMINFORM, 2005. 407 p.
2. Kutcenko E.V. Diss. …cand.chem.sc. Moscow: RSU of oil and gas, 2004.
3. Zhiganov A.N., Guzeyev V.V., Andreyev G.G. Technology of uranium dioxide for ceramic nuclear fuel. Tomsk: STT, 2002. 328 p.
XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 307 Synthesis of Some Natural Phenolglycosides E.V. Stepanova Scientific adviser – Ph.D., Prof. M.L. Belyanin Linguistic advisor – Senior teacher V.N. Demchenko National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.org Phenolglycosides derivatives of 2-acyloxy salicyl alcohol are widespread in plants of the family Salicaceae. Most phenolglycosides of this family contain salicin moiety (2-(-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-benzyl alcohol).
They are of great pharmaceutical importance as anti-inflammatory agents which have been known for over 100 years. Plants of Salicaseae family have been traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases, including diarrhea, paralysis, pulmonary disease, pox, and variola .
Other reasons for such great interest are that phenolic glycosides are of most abundant secondary metabolites known in plant tissues, and identified as important factors in many plant–herbivore studies .
However, despite the fact that phenolglycosides, derivatives of 2acyloxy salicyl alcohol are well-known as natural compounds, there is no mentioning on the synthesis of these glycosides in the literature to date.
Salireposide was found out in many plants . Populosides A, B, C were Scheme 1. Synthesis of 2-acyl phenolglycosidesa Reagents and conditions: (a) NaBH4, CTMABr, CHCl3, H2O; (b) acyl chloride of proper acid, pyridine, CHCl3; (c) 36 % HCl, CHCl3, EtOH.
308 Section VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English first isolated from Populus davidiana in 2006 , and populoside A was also isolated from P. ussuriensis .
The present investigation deals with the synthesis of salireposide (1) and 2-acyl analogs of salicin and salirepin: populosides A (2), B (3), C (4), desoxy-salireposide (5) and iso-salireposide – 4-benzoyloxy-salicin (6).
The following scheme allows to obtain glycosides of different structures that contain any acyl moiety. Thus, in the same way phenolglycosides salisyloyl salicin (7) and trichocarpin (8) were obtained.
It was established that all synthetic glycosides had -configuration of the anomeric carbon atom. The suggested method allows to obtain phenolglycosides, derivatives of 2-acyloxy salicyl alcohol in a selective way.
ReferencesBae, K. Kyo-Hak Publishing Co.: Seoul, 1999, 98.
Boeckler G.A., et al. Phytochemistry 2011, 72, 1497.
Rabate M.J. Bull. Soc. chim. biol. 1935, 17, 328.
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Si C.L., Kim J.K., Bae Y.S., Li S.M. Planta Med. 2009, 75, 1165.
Production of ceramic glazes using wasted SVD-catalyst and nepheline sludge O.V. Todovyanskaya Research supervisor: PhD, associate professor M.B. Sedelnikova Linguistic adviser: senior teacher V.N. Demchenko National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia, email@example.com Colored glazes are widely used in decoration technique of ceramic products for various purposes. There is a great variety of decorative glazes.
To obtain them expensive components such as chemically pure oxides and XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 309 salt of various elements are used. Production of ceramic glazes based on inexpensive raw materials is an urgent task.
The purpose of this research is production of ceramic glazes from wasted SVD-catalyst, which is waste of Kemerovo Corporation «Nitrogen» and nepheline sludge of Achinsk Alumina Complex.
SVD-catalyst (sulfovanadat on diatomite) has the formula 35SiO2.V2O5.3K2O.6SO3. Both glass-forming oxides of SiO2 and colorbearing oxide of V2O5 included in the wasted SVD-catalyst .
Nepheline sludge is a product of a complex, well regulated manufacturing process of recycling natural nepheline-apatite ores and alumina production. The sludge is stable with respect to all properties . CaO and SiO2 constituting a total of 85 – 88 % are basic chemical components of nepheline sludge. The mineral composition of nepheline sludge is generally represented by dicalcium silicate, and calcium hydrosilicates, hydroferrites, etc., are present as minor phases. The chemical composition of raw materials is shown in table 1.
Table 1. Chemical composition of raw materials Type of Content of oxides, mass content raw mateSiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO Na2O K2O V2O5 m cal rial Nepheline 29,12 3,67 4,55 53,20 1,45 2,16 0,90 - 4,96 sludge Chupa 63,13 21,27 0,30 0,83 0,50 1,62 12,04 - 0,30 feldspar SVDcatalyst Compositions from finely divided nepheline sludge, SVD-catalyst, Chupa feldspar and chromophores were made for ceramic glazes production.
Oxides and salts of cobalt, iron, nickel, chromium and manganese were used as chromophores. Some compositions of glazes are presented in table 2. Mixtures were subjected to fine grinding with the wet method in ball mills. Then the glazes were filtered through sieve № 0056. The obtained glazes were used for glazing ceramic products which were burnt at temperature 1170 °C and 1200 °C. Firing temperature of 1200 °C is optimal, since some of glaze coatings turned out to be dull and rough at lower temperature.
Table 2. Chemical composition of glazes Content of oxides, mass content Coating SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 MgO CaO K2O Na2O V2O5 MnO NiO CoO G1 47,4 12,8 2,5 1,0 27,7 6,7 1,9 - - - - G2 48,0 13,5 2,1 0,9 23,3 7,2 1,8 - - 3,2 - 310 Section VII.
Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English
Modified petroleum resins for bitumen modification J.P. Ustimenko, N.L. Tulina, O.I. Slavgorodskaya Scientific supervisor – associate professor, DSc (CHE) V.G. Bondaletov Linguistic advisor – senior English instructor A.V. Makarovskikh National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.org
IntroductionNowadays production of bitumen with improved operating characteristics is a topical problem. It can be solved by creating polymer bitumen XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 311 compositions (PBC) . The promising direction for modifying petroleum bitumen is using the large-tonnage secondary products of petrochemical production. For example, a variety of petroleum resins (PR) can be used [2-3].
The experimental part In this paper the main initial raw material for PBC is bitumen of grade BN 70/30 GOST 6617-76 when asphaltenes’ percentage is 30 % wt. Petroleum resin was used as an additive (5 or 10 %). Resin was received by thermal polymerization of C9 fraction of liquid pyrolysis products. The method of modifying (modification) petroleum resin was described in .
PBC was prepared by a “hot” technology: bitumen and modifier were loaded into the reactor with a mechanical stirrer. Contents were stirred vigorously for 10-40 minutes. For a homogenization the process was carried out at a temperature of 130-135 °C. Such temperature is considered with the softening temperature of bitumen (70 °C) and, more significantly, petroleum resin (135 °C).
Discussion of results It is known  that for homogenization by “hot” technology mixing should be carried out during 30-40 minutes. However, the dependence of the received coatings’ properties on the time of homogenization of the compositions is a challenge to research. The coatings were applied to the substrate through 10-40 minutes by pouring (watering method) with an interval of 10 minutes. The average thickness of the coating was 30 microns.
Figure 1 shows dependence of coatings resistance to impact on the time of homogenization and the number of modifier.
Figure 1. Dependence of coatings resistance to impact on the time of homogenization and the number of modifier 312 Section VII.
Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English Graphs of resistance properties dependence on the time of homogenization shows that extreme values are reached after 20 minutes. Further mixing does not give significant changes. Increasing the number of modifier 2-fold increases resistance to impact only by 12 % or 4 centimeters. Further increasing the number of additive isn’t purposeful .
One of the key indicators for operation of PBC is its softening temperature. It is 75 °C when percentage of petroleum resin (PR) is 5 % and 76 °C when percentage of petroleum resin (PR) is 10 %.
Waterproof of received PBC is 240 hours while coating of the unmodified bitumen has pitting corrosion after 120 hours. It should be noted that the amount of modifier doesn’t affect the corrosion resistance of the coatings.
1. Fiterer E.P. and others // Paintwork materials and their application. 2011. № 1-2.
2. Grynyshyn O. and others // Chemistry and Chemical Technology. 2008. Vol. 2, № 1. P. 47-53.
3. Bratychak M. and others // Chemistry and Chemical Technology. 2010. Vol. 4, № 4. P. 325-328.
4. Slavgorodskaya O.I. // Modern problems of polymer science: The 7th St. Petersburg Conference of Young Scientists, St. Petersburg, 17-20 October 2011. 2011. p. 95.
Sol-gel process application in glass production technology Y.O. Vasilchenko Supervisor: prof., O.V. Kazmina Linguistic adviser – V.N. Demchenko, teacher National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia, email@example.com At present the sol-gel method for material production with certain chemical, physical and mechanical properties is the main field of scientific research in Russian Federation and abroad. This method has some advantages and it is one of most progressive in the glass material development.
In this investigation two directions of sol-gel technology are applied:
1) colored coatings on float glass; 2) fireproof glass manufacturing on the basis of transparent thermoinstumenscent gel.
Such materials could block solar and UV-radiation depending on their content. These glass materials could be used in the building, for car glazing because they have good resistance to mechanical excessive wear, chemical exposure, etc.
The best method for colored coating development is a sol-gel process.
XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 313 In addition, this method is relatively cheap in comparison with other techniques, that is why interest in sol-gel materials is growing among architects of civil buildings. High chemical uniformity of obtained products that helps reduce temperature and lifetime, allow to control particle size and pores structure at any synthesis stages. One of great advantages of sol-gel technique is that mechanical properties of sol and gel allow to use them for wires, fibers and coatings production.
Colored transparent coatings were made with the help of polymeric solgel matrix. Then pigments incorporation and coatings application on the glass sheets were carried out.
The goal of the research was quality improvement of coatings in terms of their atmospheric, abrasive, scratching and UV-resistance, in addition to the improvement of aesthetic parameters, namely decrease of cracks, hazeeffects and preservation of high level transparency of coating. We changed matrix composition due to water content, solvents, dispersants and precursors modifications. There were eight different solutions. Inorganic colorants (separately or with few colors mixed) with the particle sizes not more than 150 nm, i.e. dark blue, orange colorant and black nanopowder,were added to the prepared sol-gel matrix.
In the result of the research work optimal compositions of sol-gel matrix were made, technological characteristics of coatings and their successive production were developed. The quality of transparent coating s was improved.
According to the purpose of second sol-gel process application transparent thermoinstumenscent composition was investigated. Fireproof glass consists of multilayer glass construction, in which special gel is used as a glutinous base. Under the influence of high temperature in case of fire hazards, gel composition is foamed with further gel solidification and opaque heat-insulating layer is formed.
Analysis of scientific issues, patents and research results of foreign and national companies, research laboratories in the field of fireproof glazing allows to make a choice of three model compositions. To make gel composition “water glass” ( = 1.485 g/сm3 at the t = 20 °C, modulus SiO2/Na2O = 2) and different additives with various proportions were used.
Polyalcohol up to 20 w. %, aging agents in the amount of 3 w. %, curing agents of 0.5 w. % were applied as additives.
The solution was mixed and vacuum-processed directly before the gel was laid on glass sheets. Glass width was 4 mm and gel layer width did not exceed 2 mm. The solution was laminated on clean float sheets and baked.
Then one-layer panel was assembled. After that the panel was exposed to autoclave treatment.
314 Section VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English Samples had quite good transparency, without haze- effects and whitening. The problem of the glass panel is existence of visible bubbles in the bulk of samples. We tried to solve this demerit. Experimental samples were exposed the different kinds of resistance tests: high- and low temperature tests, water-, fire- and UV-resistance tests.
Thus sol-gel usage in the float glass technology allows to spread application field and to obtain colored transparent and thermointumescent coatings with high quality.
Production of sphene ceramic pigments or titanite from natural wollastonite V.E. Vetrova Supervisor:, M.B. Sedelnikova, PhD Linguist: V.N Demchenko National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.org Currently a promising area of research is to investigate the possibility of obtaining ceramic pigments using natural minerals. It is reported about the synthesis of ceramic pigments with natural minerals diopside, tremolite , wollastonite , zeolite , kaolinite .
Using natural mineral structure as the base, it is possible to synthesize ceramic pigments derived from crystal structures.
The aim of this research was to obtain ceramic pigments with sphene structure using natural wollastonite. The crystal structure of sphene refers to island silicates. The crystal lattice consists of isolated tetrahedral .
Isomorphic substitutions are possible in the structure of island silicates of large ions for some transition metal ions and the formation of solid solutions of colored ceramic pigments with sphene structure of different bright colors .They are produced by high-temperature synthesis of chemically pure materials. This technology is expensive. The use of natural wollastonite can significantly reduce the temperature of pigments synthesis, reduce the cost of their production.
For pigments production Slyudyanka deposit wollastonite was used.
Wollastonite contains (in wt. %):SiO2 51.90, CaO 46.60, Fe2O3 0.06, Al2O3 0.11, MgO 1.33. Natural wollastonite was subjected to fine grinding up to not more than 2 % of the residue on sieve № 0063.The sphene synthesis
was carried out according to the reaction:
CaO SiO2 + TiO2 CaO TiO2 SiO2 (1) XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 315 The pigments were obtained by the introduction of chromophores into
the mixture of wollastonite and titanium oxide in accordance with the reaction:
CaO*SiO2 +(1-x)TiO2+x(Me)OCaO*TiO2(1-x)(Me)Ox*SiO2 (2) where x = 0.1, 0.5, 0.9 mol.
Salts of transition metals iron, cobalt, nickel, and chromium were used as chromophores. The concentration of chromophores in terms of oxide varied from 3.8 to 53.7 mass %.
The dried mixture was burned at a temperature of 1100–1200 °C. In the firing process the restoration of the crystal structure of wollastonite, the synthesis of new crystalline structure, formation of coloring phases take plase.
Nickel pigments are bright yellow and greenish–yellow, cobalt pigments are of green, dark olive and dark green colors, pigments containing chromium are of brownish-green color, and iron pigments are red-brown.
The pigments were studied using diffractometric analysis, which showed that in the test sample (without chromophore) synthesized at 1200 °C, structure of sphene (d = 0.497, 0.326, 0.261 nm) is dominant, it also contains several peaks characteristic of rutile (d = 0.326, 0.249, 0.230 nm). Radiographs of specimens with the addition of chromophores show that the intensity of diffraction peaks decreases, wollastonite is a dominant peak, as there are crystalline phases of sphene and rutile. At a concentration of Cr2O3 7,48 mass. % oxide is released in a free form (d = 0.203, 0.181, 0.167 nm).
It can be concluded that the synthesis reaction of pigments with sphene structure is advisable to carry out adding a mineralizer to increase the yield of the main product.
The resulting pigments are tested as glaze colors.
The research has shown that the obtaining of ceramic pigments with wollastonite is promising and economically feasible. The use of natural minerals reduces the cost of ceramic pigments . Due to the presence of wollastonite in the composition of silicon and calcium oxides, it is possible to obtain ceramic pigments with different crystal structures of derivatives using additional charge-adjustment .
The use of mineralizers in obtaining ceramic pigments will increase the output of main reaction products, and provide additional opportunities to expand the color palette of pigments.
1. Sedelnikova M.B, Pogrebenkov V.M. Ceramic pigments based on natural minerals / / Glass and Ceramics.- 2002.- № 12.- S. 10 – 13.
2. Sirajiddinov N.A, Akramova N.N, Velikanova F.I and other ceramic pigments based on silicates, chain-like structures. / / Glass and Ceramics.- 1992.- № 1. P. 26.
316 Section VII. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English
3. Pogrebenkov V.M, Sedelnikova M.B, V.I. Vereshchagin Zeolites - the raw material for ceramic pigments. / / Glass and Ceramics.- 1998.- № 2.- P. 25-26.
4. Chem I., Rothman T., Romanenko Z.A. Ceramic pigments based on kaolin. / / Glass and Ceramics.- 1986.- № 7.- P. 25-26.
5. Pogrebenkov V.M, Sedelnikova M.B, V.I. Vereschagin. Ceramic pigments with diopside and anorthite structures based on wollastonite. / / Glass and Ceramics.P. 18 - 20.
6. Sedelnikova M.B., Pogrebenkov V.M., V.I. Vereshchagin Ceramic pigments based on talc / / Glass and Ceramics.- 1997.- № 11.- S. 17 - 20.
7. Sedelnikova M.B., Pogrebenkov V.M., V.I. Vereshchagin Preparation of ceramic pigments with diopside structure from talc / / Glass and Ceramics.- 1998.S. 16 - 18.
8. G.N. Maslennikov, IV FOOD.Ceramic pigments. 2nd ed Revised And extra.- M:
OOO RIF "BUILDING MATERIALS" 2009.- 224 Esterification reaction E.V. Zangieva, E.A. Skrebotun Research supervisor: A.A. Syskina, Senior lecturer National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University Esterification is the chemical process for making esters, which are compounds of the chemical structure R-COOR', where R and R' are either alkyl or aryl groups. The most common method for preparing esters is to heat a carboxylic acid, R-CO-OH, with an alcohol, R'-OH, while removing the water that is formed. A mineral acid catalyst is usually needed to make the reaction occur at a useful rate. The esterification process has a broad spectrum of uses from the preparation of highly specialized esters in the chemical laboratory to the production of millions of tons of commercial ester products. These commercial compounds are manufactured by either a batch or a continuous synthetic process.
The objectives of our work is demonstrate how an ester can be made by the interaction of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol, in the presence of a sulfuric acid catalyst, for example production of butyl acetate and methyl salicylate.
Methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen or wintergreen oil) is an organic ester that is naturally produced by many species of plants Commercial methyl salicylate is now synthesized, but in the past, it was commonly distilled XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 317 from the twigs of Betula lenta (sweet birch) and Gaultheria procumbens (eastern teaberry or wintergreen).
Methyl salicylate is used in high concentrations as a rubefacient in deep heating liniments (such as Bengay) to treat joint and muscular pain. It is used in low concentrations as a flavoring agent (no more than 0.04 %; it is toxic). It is also used to provide fragrance to various products and as an odor-masking agent for some organophosphate pesticides. Methyl salicylate, though its source plants are not true mints, is used as a mint in some kinds of chewing gum and candy, as an alternative to the more common peppermint and spearmint oils. It can also be found as a flavoring of root beer.
n-Butyl acetate, also known as butyl ethanoate, is an organic compound commonly used as a solvent in the production of lacquers and other products. It is a colorless flammable liquid. It is used as a synthetic fruit flavoring in foods such as candy, ice cream, cheeses, and baked goods.
Butyl acetates are commonly manufactured by the Fischer esterification of a butanol isomer and acetic acid with the presence of catalytic sulfuric acidunder reflux conditions.
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 + We consider in detail the process of esterification. Determined what products we can get in the esterification. Considered the use of methyl salicylate, and butyl acetate. Determined that the products of esterification of great use
4. http://www.ipfw.edu/ СодержаниеСодержание и авторский указатель Секция IV.
Технология и моделирование процессов подготовки и переработки природных энергоносителей Исследование углей месторождения Шарынгол (Северная Монголия) Ф.С. Абакарова
Исследование процесса выщелачивания руды бакчарского железорудного месторождения Р.Р. Абдюшев
Термолиз озонированного мазута в присутствии активирующих добавок Д.В. Антимонов
Разработка формализованной схемы превращений веществ в процессе сероочистки дизельного топлива Ю.И. Афанасьева, Н.И. Кривцова
Влияние природы растворителей при механоактивации горючего сланца на выход и состав продуктов его акватермолиза Н.П. Балабанов, В.В. Савельев, А.К. Головко
Использование неравновесной модели при моделировании совмещенных процессов Е.В. Бахтараева, О.Е. Митянина
Оптимизация процесса алкилирования бензола методом математического моделирования с учетом физико-химических закономерностей Н.С. Белинская, И.О. Долганова, Ю.А. Щербакова
Разработка углеводородной основы буровых растворов на основе инвертных эмульсий А.В. Бобылев, М.О. Андропов, Р.А. Чуркин
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Расчет нефтяного резервуара Е.В. Булычева
Каталитическая гидроочистка дизельных топлив* М.С. Бусыгин
Исследование параметрической чувствительности с использованием САПР Н.С. Вдовушкина, А.В. Вольф
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320 Содержание и авторский указатель Восстановление загрязненного грунта с применением моющей композиции на основе поверхностно-активных веществ и биопрепарата И.А. Епифанова, Д.А. Филатов
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Моделирование процесса окисления пропилена в барьерном разряде А.Н. Очередько, С.В. Кудряшов
Оптимизация процесса компаундирования экологически чистых моторных топлив методом математического моделирования на физико-химической основе А.А. Петрова
Выявление особенностей палеозойских нефтей Юго-Востока Западной Сибири по биомаркерам М.И. Пикалова
Расчет реактора гидроочистки дизельного топлива в среде программирования HYSYS В.В. Платонов
322 Содержание и авторский указатель Исследование замены сырья на установке каталитического риформинга Л-35-11-600 В.И. Продан, С.А. Фалеев
Гуминовые препараты из бурового угля после механообработки для борьбы с опустыниваением Ю.Г. Савеченко, А.В. Савельева
Увеличение выхода дистиллятных фракций в термических процессах переработки природных битумов Н.Н. Свириденко, Е.Б. Кривцов, А.К. Головко
Анализ эксплуатационных характеристик катализаторов дегидрирования Р.В. Романовский, Г.Ю. Силко
Повышение эффективности процесса отстаивания при промысловой подготовке нефти О.А. Сипкова
Программная реализация математической модели процесса гидроочистки дизельного топлива А.А. Татаурщиков
Регенерация Pt-содержащего катализатора процесса дегидрирования А.В. Трусов, Р.В. Романовский
Моделирование процесса риформинга с непрерывной регенерацией катализатора Д.Д. Уваркина, М.С. Гынгазова
Моделирование диффузионных процессов в колонне реакционной ректификации Д.А. Федорова, О.Е. Митянина
Разработка методики расчета оптимального режима обводнения катализатора процесса дегидрирования высших алканов Е.В. Францина, Ю.И. Афанасьева
Моделирование процессов в термогазодинамическом сепараторе Е.С. Хлебникова
Моделирование реактора получения изопропилбензола А.А. Чудинова
XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 323 Ферментативный гидролиз карбамида в составе композиции ПАВ для снижения вязкости нефти Ю.З. Шагабиева, Л.И. Сваровская, Л.К. Алтунина
Облагораживание бензина с добавками этанола на цеолитсодержащем катализаторе А.Н. Шамсутдинова
Разработка интеллектуальной системы для поиска причин отклонений в работе промышленной установки риформинга и выдачи рекомендаций для их устранения Е.С. Шемерянкина, Н.В. Чеканцев
Электродепарафинизация дизельного топлива Н.С. Яковлев, Д.В. Тарасенко
Мониторинг промышленной установки каталитического риформинга бензинов Ачинского НПЗ И.В. Якупова, Е.С. Шарова
Секция V. Химическая технология редких элементов
Фракционирование стабильных изотопов свинца в процессе зонной перекристаллизации Д.В. Акимов, Е.А. Рулев, М.С. Федоров
Исследование термической устойчивости тетрахлорокобальтата аммония Д.Д. Аманбаев, О.В. Гринева
Выщелачивание ортитовых РЗМ-содержащих руд А.В. Ануфриева, А.С. Дзюба, А.С. Буйновский, В.В. Тинин........ 130 Термодинамическое моделирование хлорирования оксида урана с использованием полихлордибензодиоксина (ПХДД) Ж.Ж. Байбосынов
Исследование разложения силицида магния в продуктах магнийтермии диоксида кремния Ж.У. Байназаров, А.Д. Киселёв
324 Содержание и авторский указатель Поиск способа переработки смеси отходов производства магнитов на основе Nd2Fe14B и Sm2Co17 Н.Н. Басхаева, Ю.А. Седельникова
Кинетические закономерности процессов синтеза тетрафтороброматов щелочных металлов И.В. Волошин, А.И. Лизунов
Исследование коррозии конструкционных материалов в среде бифторида аммония В.А. Андреев, М.А. Гулюта, А.С. Гурин, П.Б. Молоков, О.И. Налесник, В.Л. Софронов, П.А. Уваров
Исследование активации упорных урансодержащих руд растворами бифторида аммония М.А. Гулюта, В.А. Андреев, К.С. Воронцов, Ю.Н. Макасеев, Е.А. Бурова, А.С. Гурин, П.Б. Молоков, В.Л. Софронов............... 142 Исследование процесса очистки тетрафторида циркония от гафния на сорбентах из неорганических фторидов А.С. Дзюба, И.Ю. Русаков, А.С. Буйновский, В.Л. Софронов...... 144 Формиатная технология переработки отходов производства магнитов Nd-Fe-B В.В. Догаев, А.Ю. Макасеев
Разработка технологии получения чернового бериллияс использованием гранулированной шихты И.И. Дробницкий, Б.Ж. Аринов
Получение, очистка и исследование свойств изотопно-чистых селена и теллура Е.А. Иванусь
Исследование процесса экстракции урана аламином 336 из сернокислых растворов З.К. Куанышева
Исследование взаимодействия тетрафторобромата калия с некоторыми органическими сольвентами И.А. Курский, А.А. Пастухов
Исследование основных термодинамических функций тетрафтороброматов металлов первой группы А.И. Лизунов, И.В. Волошин
XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 325 Усовершенствование технологии сорбционного цианирования продуктов биоокисления А.В. Лобах
Определение влагосодержания в смеси шлифотходов производства высокоэнергетических магнитов на основе Nd-Fe и Sm-Co Е.С. Ляпунова
Разработка технологии получения меднобериллиевых лигатур в индукционных печах открытого типа с применением керамических футеровок А.И. Ляшков, С.И.Тюменцева
Извлечение урана из раствора после карбонатного выщелачивания М.С. Матвеева
Определение кинетических параметров взаимодействия тетрафторобромата калия с тетрабромметаном А.А. Пастухов, И.А. Курский
Синтез диоксида кремния и изготовление керамических изделий на его основе Е.Ю. Подшибякина
Иновационное исследование кинетики взаимодействия металлического иридия с фторокислителями с применением нейтронно-активационного анализа Е.В. Савочкина, B.И. Соболев
Низкотемпературное автоклавное окисление сульфидов из биоокисленного флотоконцентрата Г.В. Саенко, С.В. Дроздов
Исследование возможности получения диуранатов аммония продуктами гидролиза твердого карбамида Д.Г. Скальская, А.Л. Татаренко, М.В. Лишенко
Электрохимическое осаждение сплавов неодим-железо А.Н. Уринова, А.П. Савчук, А.И. Панасенко
Исследование технологических свойств особочистого гексафторосиликата аммония А.С. Федин, А.С. Кантаев
Исследование движения рения в технологическом процессе добычи и переработки урана Н.Д. Хосилов, С.Р. Кувандыкова, Н.Н. Асланов
326 Содержание и авторский указатель Автоклавное выщелачивание вольфрамсодержащих отвалов новосибирского оловянного комбината с помощью карбоната натрия С.Н. Чегринцев
Исследование процесса травления титана А.С. Шагалова, З.Г. Ушакова, Е.С. Гулевич
Секция VI. Охрана окружающей среды и экология Homo Sapiens
Очистка газов ТЭС от NOх С.А. Абдулина
Умягчение природных вод с использованием материалов на основе бентонитовых глин С.А. Бетц, Л.В. Куртукова
Изучение свойств полидициклопентадиена в присутствии низкомолекулярного каучука М.Н. Богомолова, Д.И. Земляков, Д.А. Русаков
Модификация нефтеполимерных смол на основе дициклопентадиеновой фракции Е.В. Бокова, О.Ю. Федорова
Математическое моделирование трубчатого реактора процесса полимеризации дициклопентадиена Г.В. Борисов
Оптически прозрачные блочные нанокомпозиты на основе ПММА, функцианализированные наночастицами Au и Ag В.В. Ботвин
Титан–магниевые катализаторы в производстве полимеров Е.В. Вихарева
Получение пленкообразующих на основе жидких продуктов пиролиза Е.В. Волчок, А.А. Мананкова
Исследование структуры полимеров методом ИК-спектроскопии Т.А. Воробьева
XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 327 Модификация нефтеполимерных смол комплексом электрогенерированных окислителей Д.А. Вяткина
Исследование высокотемпературного процесса утилизации жидких отходов титановых производств В.В. Гордеев
Изучение возможности использования экологически безопасных ускорителей вулканизации в шинных резинах А.В. Гуцал
Применение метода синхронного термического анализа при проведении пожарно-технических исследований Л.В. Дашко, А.В. Довбня
Влияние ионизирующего излучения на устойчивость коллоидных растворов железа К.С. Дудко, Л.Р. Меринова
Применение оптических технологий в оценке содержания фтористого водорода в воздухе и компонентах природных сред (снеге и дождевых каплях) Е.А. Дыкина, Д.В. Василенко
Оптимизация работы установки очистки газов "дыхания" от метанола В.М. Заякин
Аминирование нефтеполимерной смолы, полученной на основе фракции С9 жидких продуктов пиролиза Л.С. Заякина
Сополимеризация непредельных компонентов жидких продуктов пиролиза Е.Б. Зяббарова
Получение сложных эфиров целлюлозы с янтарной кислотой из древесины осины М.В. Клевцова
Битумно-смоляные композиции на основе модифицированных акрилонитрилом смол Е.А. Кустова
Реокинетика смешения синтетического каучука с дициклопентадиеном М.И. Малиновская, Э.А. Пашковская
328 Содержание и авторский указатель Механизм извлечения ионов тяжёлых металлов из водных растворов, при использовании наносорбционного материала FilLis 4, с дальнейшим определением сорбционной ёмкости данного материала Д.В. Мартемьянов, Е.И. Короткова, А.И. Галанов
Осаждение наночастиц на мицелии плесневых грибов Ю.А. Муксунова
Влияние гетерометаллических пивалатных комплексов на радикальную полимеризацию метилметакрилата С.В. Назарова, Р.М. Исламова, М.А. Кискин
Сравнение методов ГХ/МС и ВЭЖХ при анализе полициклических ароматических углеводородов в объектах окружающей среды А.С. Нартов
Изменение надмолекулярной структуры при аэродинамическом диспергировании полипропиленового волокнистого материала Е.А. Парилов
Получение пространственно-локализованных полимерных материалов из паров ароматических углеводородов под действием плазмы барьерного разряда С.А. Перевезенцев
Новый способ получения синтетических олигомеров Ю.Е. Похарукова, Е.В. Вихарева
Выбор оптимальных параметров синтеза анилинового черного А.Н. Рязанова
Химический состав и качество болотных вод в южно-таежной подзоне Западной Сибири А.А. Синюткина, Ю.А. Харанжевская, Е.С. Воистинова.............. 247 Использование модифицированных бутилметакрилатом нефтеполимерных смол в составе битумно-смоляных композиций Т.В. Синявина
Оптимизация условий полимеризации 1-гексена с учетом изменения величины коэффициента теплоотдачив реакторе В.С. Станкевич
Получение полимербитумных композиций, модифицированных нефтеполимерной смолой Н.Л. Тулина, Ю.П. Устименко, О.И. Славгородская
XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 329 Водородная энергетика, как альтернативный источник энергии К.В. Туманина, И.О. Матейко, Е.Б. Колесникова
Микробиологическое окисление углеводородов высоковязкой нефти в почве Д.А. Филатов, Е.В. Гулая
Изучение влияния дозировки каталитического комплекса на свойства неодимового полибутадиена Е.В. Харламова, А.И. Рахматуллин
Очистка подземных вод от коллоидного железа М.Г. Чипизубова, К.И. Мачехина
Физико-химические свойства наночастиц Ag и Au, полученных методом абляции объемных мишеней, в воде и этаноле Е.Г. Шаповалова
Очистка сбросовой жидкости с высоким содержанием хлоридионов производства окиси пропилена методом бездиафрагменного электролиза Н.А. Шерина
Синтез гликолида А.В. Яркова, В.Н. Глотова
Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, in English Химия и химическая технология (на английском языке) Structural and mineralogical features of raw material effects on amorphous Siliceous Phase changes at heating N.K. Abilbayeva, N.P. Karionova
Effect of the component composition and oxidation-reduction characteristics of mixes on foaming of foam-glass-crystalline materials A.B. Abisheva, N.A. Kuznetsova
Prospects of using felsite in acid-resistant ceramic A.B. Adykaeva
330 Содержание и авторский указатель Structure and Strength of Foam Glass Crystalline Materials Produced from a Glass Granulate E. K. Berdaliyev
Modification of Structural and Rheological Features of Composite Crude Oil Transported by “Usa-Ukhta-Yaroslavl” Oil-Trunk Pipeline Using Chemical Reagents and Magnetic Treatment E.A. Budovaya, T.V. Novikova
Fire-resistive translucent glazing A.V. Epifantseva
The use of aril diazonium tosylates as initial substrata for synthesis of various stelbene derivatives A.G. Fefelova, P.S. Postnikov, M.E. Trusova
Ceramic materials mullite-corundum composition E. V. Gaidaichuk
Investigation of the high-ferrous bauxite using possibility in the aluminosilicate proppants technology L.P. Govorova, A.A. Reshetova
Develop ceramic material for using in medicine by method of slip K.S. Kamyshnaya
Tobermorite synthesis on the base of industrial glass waste E.I. Lebedeva
Spectrophotometric definition of carotenoids in eggs and egg products O.N. Levchenko, N.M. Mordvinova
Preparation construction composite material on the basis of silica fume and acetylene quicklime A.V. Maksyakova
FiBrA installations with nanosorption FilLis cleaning materials for purification of aquatic environments from the chemical and microbiological contamination D.V. Martemyanov, E.I. Korotkova, D.N. Muhortov
The Impact Analysis of Process Variables on the Treatment of Crude Oil E.A. Novoseltceva
Analysis of a parametric sensitivity of oil distillation column V.V. Pavlik, A.V. Volf
XIII Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция имени профессора Л.П. Кулёва студентов и молодых ученых с международным участием, ТПУ, Томск, 2012 331 Low-temperature autoclave oxidation of sulfide from bio-oxygenated flotation concentrate G.V. Saenko, S.V. Drozdov
Predicting the service life of different dehydrogenation catalysts under the hard conditions of their exploitation Galina Y. Silko
Modeling of low-temperature separation, taking into account the efficiency of separation equipment Olga A. Sipkova, Elena S. Khlebnikova
Research of Ammonium Diuranates Obtaining by Hydrolyze Products of Solid Carbamide D.G. Skalskaya, A.L. Tatarenko, M.V. Lishenko
Synthesis of Some Natural Phenolglycosides E.V. Stepanova
Production of ceramic glazes using wasted SVD-catalyst and nepheline sludge O.V. Todovyanskaya
Modified petroleum resins for bitumen modification J.P. Ustimenko, N.L. Tulina, O.I. Slavgorodskaya
Sol-gel process application in glass production technology Y.O. Vasilchenko
Production of sphene ceramic pigments or titanite from natural wollastonite V.E. Vetrova
Esterification reaction E.V. Zangieva, E.A. Skrebotun
332 Авторский указатель и авторский указатель Содержание